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Threskiornis aethiopicus - Ibis sagrado

Reino: Animalia
Filo: Chordata
Clase: Aves
Orden: Ciconiiformes
Familia: Threskiornithidae
Genero: Threskiornis
Especie: T. aethiopicus


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Threskiornis aethiopicus | Ibis sagrado | Egyptian Sacred Ibis

Esta zancuda de regiones cálidas era muy respetada en Egipto porque libraba las riberas del Nilo de numerosos reptiles. El Ibis combate a los reptiles y, a la vez, se encuentra en el origen del basilisco: los egipcios creían que el basilisco nacía de un huevo de Ibis.
La vuelta del Ibis, pájaro migratorio, correspondía con las crecidas fertilizantes del Nilo: el Ibis fue símbolo de prosperidad, como protector de los trabajos campestres. Pero después de la venida del Ibis, de la crecida, llega la sequía. ¿No es ésta sequía producida por algo que nace del huevo del Ibis, la misma sequía producida por la mirada del basilisco? De hecho, los egipcios destruían ritualmente los huevos del Ibis.

El IBIS es un pájaro original de Egipto, un ave de plumaje blanco y negro que se alimenta de los huevos del cocodrilo y vive a las orillas del Nilo.
Simbólicamente representa el poder alado que devora la más burda asociación material y la transforma en energía de vida. Esta circunstancia permitió a los grandes iniciados egipcios adoptar el nombre de Ibis para identificar la figura de THOT, maestro de sabiduría, de las artes y las ciencias, padre de la doctrina hermética y de las palabras sagradas de la escritura jeroglífica.

Se debe a THOT, llamado por los griegos HERMES TRIMEGISTRO, el tres veces grande, la invención de 78 láminas ilustradas con numerosos símbolos y figuras que permiten obtener las claves del conocimiento más remoto y preciso del hombre como entidad mundana y como proyección cósmica.

El ibis fue una de las aves más sagradas para los egipcios, sin embargo debía tener características especiales como el cuello sin plumas y de color negro opaco, las patas grises con matices azulados y el cuerpo blanco, con plumas negro-azul en la cola.

Estaba consagrado a Thot y al morir se le momificaba con todo cuidado y se introducía en cántaros de barro. De todo Egipto llevaban los ibis muertos para colocarlos en los lugares sagrados, como la importante necrópolis de Saqqara y la de Hermópolis, en donde se descubrió un laberinto subterráneo cavado en la roca, a 34 metros de profundidad, en el cual se contaron cuatro mil urnas para los ibis, además de la sala para el embalsamamiento y un altar, en donde se encontraron tres esculturas de madera dorada de dos ibis y un babuino, además de infinidad de estatuillas pequeñas.

Egyptian Ibis, Copenhagen Museum

Anthomedusae


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1 Gemmaria sagittaria | Zanclea gemmosa | young medusa from the side
2 Rathkea fasciculata | Koellikerina fasciculata | medusa from above
3 Tiara pileata | Neoturris pileata | medusa from below
4 Tiara pileata | internal organs from the side
5 Stomotoca pterophylla | Larsonia pterophylla | internal organs from the side
6 Thamnostylus dinema | medusa from the side

Aspidonia


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1 Limulus moluccanus | Tachypleus gigas | adult male from above
2 Limulus moluccanus | adult male from below
3 Limulus moluccanus | larva
4 Eurypterus fischeri | Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus | Baltoeurypterus tetragonophthalmus | from above
5 Pterygotus anglicus | from above
6 Trinucleus goldfussi | Onnia goldfussi | from above
7 Deiphon forbesi | from above
8 Phacops latifrons | curled-up individual | 8a: from forward, 8b: from the side
9 Dalmania punctata | Asteropyge punctata | from above
10 Ampyx rouaulti | Raphiophorus rouaulti | from above
11 Paradoxides bohemicus | from above
12 Cheirurus insignis | from above
13 Acidaspis dufresnoyi | Selenopeltis buchi | from above
14 Megalaspis extenuatus | Megistaspidella extenuata | from above
15 Harpes ungula | Bohemoharpes ungula | 15a: from above, 15b: from the side
16 Agnostus pisiformis | from above
17 Lichas palmata | Trochurus speciosus | from above
18 Hydrocephalus saturnoides | Eccaparadoxides pusillus | Phanoptes pusillus | from above
19 Sphaerexochus mirus | fron the side
20 Triarthrus becki | 20a: from above, 20b: from below

Stauromedusae


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1 (top right): Tesserantha connecteus | side view
2 (right): Tesserantha connecteus | Tesserantha connectens | medusa, bottom view
3 (center): Haliclystus auricula | | side view
4 (top left): Haliclystus auricula | side view with umbrella folded back
5 (bottom left): Haliclystus auricula | bottom view
6 (left): Lucernaria bathyphila | medusa, cross-section of stalk
7 (bottom right): Lucernaria pyramidalis | Lucernaria quadricornis | bottom view

Actiniae

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1 Heliactis bellis | Cereus pedunculatus
2 Mesacmaea stella | Mesacmaea stellata
3 Aiptasia couchii | Aiptasia mutabilis
4 Cylista impatiens | Choriactis impatiens
5 Bunodes thallia | Anthopleura thallia
6 Metridium praetextum | Actinostella flosculifera
7 Heliactis troglodytes | Sagartia troglodytes
8 Anthea cereus | Anemonia sulcata
9 Aiptasia undata | Aiptasia diaphana
10 Aiptasia diaphana
11 Bunodes monilifera | Paractis monilifera
12 Corynactis viridis
13 Metridium concinnatum | Oulactis concinnata
14 Sagartia chrysoplenium | Chrysoela chrysosplenium
15 Actinoloba dianthus | Metridium senile

Thuroidea


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1 Phyllophorus urna | adult
2 Sporadipus botellus | Holothuria impatiens | adult
3 Synapta digitata | Labidoplax digitata | young auriculata larva
4 Synapta digitata | older auriculata larva
5 Synapta digitata | young doliolaria larva
6 Synapta digitata | older doliolaria larva
7 Synapta digitata | young doliolaria larva in cross-section
8 Stichopus murrayi | Mesothuria murrayi | spicule
9 Myriotrochus rinkii | spicule
10 Caudina coriacea | Paracaudina chilensis | spicule
11 Paelopatides aspera | Galatheathuria aspera | spicule
12 Elpinia rigida | spicule
13 Synapta aculeata | Protankyra aculeata | spicule
14 Synapta glabra | Opheodesoma glabra | spicule
15 Colochirus inornatus | Plesiocolochirus inornatus | spicule
16 Stichopus moebii | Isostichopus badionotus | spicule
17 Chirodota venusta | Trochodota venusta | spicule
18 Chirodota venusta | spicule
19 Cucumaria crucifera | Trachasina crucifera | spicule
20 Thelenota atra | Holothuria atra | spicule
21 Arbacia pustulosa | spicule
22 Stichopus moebii | Isostichopus badionotus | spicule

Polycyttaria


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1 (top center, above): Collosphaera primordialis | Collosphaeridae sp. | colony
2 (top left): Thalassoxanthium medusinum | single animal with symbiotic zooxanthellae
3 (top right): Sphaerozoum ovodimare | colony
4 (top center, below): Thalassoxanthium cervicorne | spicule
5 (bottom center): Sphaerozoum spinosissimum | Sphaerozoum radiatum | spicule
6 (left center, above): Coronosphaera diadema | Collosphaeridae sp. | single animal
7 (right center, above): Trypanosphaera trepanata | Acrosphaera trepanata | single animal
8 (left center, below): Acrosphaera inflata | single animal
9 (right center, below): Mazosphaera lagotis | Collosphaeridae sp. | single animal
10 (bottom left): Caminosphaera dendrophora | Collosphaeridae sp. | single animal with symbiotic zooxanthellae
11 (bottom right): Coronosphaera calycina | Collosphaeridae sp. | single animal with symbiotic zooxanthellae
12 (center): Solenosphaera familiaris | Trisolenia cornucopia | colony with symbiotic zooxanthellae

Prosobranchia


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1 Calcar triumphans | Guildfordia triumphans | from above
2 Conus imperialis
3 Harpa ventricosa | Harpa davidis
4 Murex tenuispinus | Murex pecten
5 Murex inflatus | Chicoreus inflatus
6 Fusus longicauda | Fusinus colus | cut open
7 Astralium imperiale | Astraea heliotropium | from below
8 Astralium imperiale | from above

Gamochonia - Pulpos

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1 Chiroteuthis veranyi
2 Histioteuthis rüppellii | Histioteuthis bonnellii
3 Pinnoctopus cordiformis | Pinnoctopus cordiformis
4 Octopus vulgaris
5 Octopus granulatus | Octopus vulgaris

Acephala - conchas


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1 Cytherea dione | Pitar dione | opening view
2 Cytherea dione | valve view
3 Cytherea dione | hinge view
4 Cardium aculeatum | Acanthocardia aculeata | valve from outside
5 Cardium aculeatum | side view
6 Hemicardium cardissa | Corculum cardissa | valve from outside
7 Hemicardium cardissa | opening view
8 Hemicardium cardissa | frontside view
9 Hemicardium cardissa | backside view
10 Tridacna squamosa | hinge view
11 Tridacna squamosa | opening view
12 Tridacna squamosa | valve from outside
13 Tridacna squamosa | valve from inside
14 Hippopus maculatus | Hippopus hippopus | hinge view

Copepoda


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1 Calanus pavo | Calocalanus pavo | male
2 Clytemnestra scutellata | female
3 Oncaea venusta | male
4 Cryptopontius thorelli | female
5 Acontiophorus scutatus | female
6 Corycaeus venustus | female
7 Sapphirina darwinii | female
8 Augaptilus filigerus | Euaugaptilus filigerus | male

Cirripedia


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1 Lepas anatifera | habitus of adult
2 Lepas anatifera | adult with left half of shell removed
3 Conchoderma auritum | group of adults on Coronula diadema shell
4 Pentalasmis vitrea | Lepas fascicularis | adult without shell from below
5 Scalpellum eximium | Arcoscalpellum michelottianum | adult from the side
6 Scalpellum eximium | adult from above
7 Scalpellum vitreum | Arcoscalpellum vitreum | adult from the side
8 Scalpellum vitreum | Arcoscalpellum vitreum | adult from above
9 Coronula diadema | shell from above
10 Coronula diadema | shell from the side
11 Coronula reginae | shell from above
12 Chthamalus antennatus | adult from above
13 Catophragmus polymerus | Catomerus polymerus | adult from above
14 Octomeris angulosa | adult from above
15 Sacculina carcini | adult female parasitizing Carcinus maenas | showing externa and indicating network of interna

Tineida + Polillas


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1 Alucita hexadactyla | Twenty-plume Moth | Orneodes hexadactyla
2 Pterophorus pentadactylus | White Plume Moth | Aciptilia pentadactyla | 2a, 2b: wing scales
3 Pterophorus rhododactylus | Cnaemidophorus rhododactylus | Cnaemidophorus rhododactyla
4 Lithocolletis populifolia | Gracilaria populifolia | Phyllonorycter populifoliella
5 Plutella xylostella | Diamondback Moth | Cerostoma xylostella | 5a, 5b: wing scales
6 Harpella geoffroyella | Geoffroyella gruneriella | Alabonia geoffrella


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1 Idalus ochreata
2 Thyridia themisto | Small Thyridia
3 Gorgonidia garleppi
4 Grammia virgo | Virgin Tiger Moth
5 Cizara ardeniae | Cizara Hawkmoth
6 Tichromia carmen
7 Alcides zodiaca | Zodiac Moth
8 Diphthera festiva | Hieroglyphic Moth
9 Amphicallia bellatrix | Beautiful Tiger
10 Erateina staudingeri | Staudinger’s Longtail
11 Dysphania militaris
12 Utetheisa bella | Bella Moth
13 Milionia isodoxa | Hoop Pine Moth
14 Euchromia lethe | The Basker

Echinidea


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1 Cidaris tribuloides | from below
2 Cidaris baculosa | Prionocidaris baculosa | mouth region of shell from below (spines removed)
3 Cidaris baculosa | periproct region of shell from above (spines removed)
4 Dorocidaris papillata | Cidaris cidaris | pedicellaria
5 Strongylocentrus nudus | pedicellaria in lengthwise section
6 Phyllacanthus annulifera | Prionocidaris baculosa | spine
7 Phyllacanthus baculosa | Prionocidaris baculosa | spine
8 Psammechinus miliaris | endplate of tube-foot
9 Centrostephanus longispinus | spine in cross-section
10 Sphaerechinus esculentus | Sphaerechinus granularis | pedicellaria in lengthwise section
11 Sphaerechinus esculentus | mouthparts | Aristotle's Lantern

Phaeodaria


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1 Aulographis candelabrum | Aulographonium bicorne | end of spicule
2 Aulographis pulvinata
3 Aulographis verticillata | Aulacanthidae sp.
4 Aulographis asteriscus
5 Aulographis furcula
6 Aulographis triglochin
7 Aulographis bovicornis
8 Aulographis ancorata
9 Sagenoscena stellata | Sagenoscena sp. | animal in shell
10 Sagenoscena stellata | end of spicule
11 Sagenoscena ornata
12 Auloscena mirabilis | end of spicule
13 Conchoceras cornutum | Concharidae sp. | shell
14 Conchonia quadricornis | Concharidae sp.
15 Coelographis regina | spicule from shell apex
16 Coelospathis ancorata | Coelographis sp. | spicule from shell apex

Nepenthaceae


Nepenthes melamphora | Nepenthes gymnamphora

Basimycetes

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1 Dictyophora madonna | Phallus sp. | mature fruiting body
2 Phallus impudicus | mature fruiting body with lengthwise section of volva
3 Aseroe rubra | mature fruiting body
4 Clathrus cancellatus | Clathrus ruber
5 Clathrella crispa | Clathrus crispus
6 Clathrella pusilla | Clathrus pusillus
7 Calathiscus sepia | Lysurus sp.
8 Simblum sphaerocephalum | Lysurus periphragmoides | Dring, mature fruiting body
9 Anthurus borealis | Lysurus borealis | young fruiting body in cross-section
10 Geaster multifidus | Geastrum sp. | mature fruiting body
11 Coprinus comatus

Siphoneae

pasar puntero sobre imagen para identificar especiesmove pointer over image to identify species

1 (top left): Caulerpa racemosa | habitus
2 (top right): Caulerpa uvifera | Caulerpa prolifera
3 (left): Caulerpa pinnata | Caulerpa mexicana
4 (right center): Caulerpa peltata
5 (bottom left): Caulerpa paspaloides
6 (bottom right): Caulerpa macrodisca | Caulerpa peltata
7 (right): Struvea plumosa
8 (center): Neomeris kelleri | Neomeris annulata | cross-section
9 (left center): Neomeris kelleri | Neomeris annulata
10 (top center): Acetabularia mediterranea | Acetabularia acetabulum
11 (bottom center): Bornetella capitata | habitus with lengthwise section through lower "head"

Florideae

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1 (top center): Chondrus crispus
2 (top left): Amansia glomera | Amansia glomerata | Melanamansia glomerata
3 (top right): Constantinea rosamarina
4 (left): Ptilota serrata
5 (center): Ptilota densa | Neoptilota densa
6 (right): Rissonella verruculosa | Rissoella verruculosa
7 (bottom left, upper): Delesseria involvens | Hypoglossum involvens
8 (bottom right, upper): Delesseria sanguinea
9 (bottom center): Nemastoma cervicorne | Platoma cyclocolpum
10 (bottom left, lower): Solieria chordalis | cystocarp in cross-section
11 (bottom right, lower): Binderella neglecta | Amphiplexia hymenocladioides

Arachnida - Arañas


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1 Tegeocranus hericius | Protocepheus hericius
2 Tegeocranus latus | Cepheus latus
3 Tegeocranus cepheiformis | Cepheus cepheiformis
4 Leiosoma palmicinctum | Tereticepheus palmicinctum
5 Phrynus reniformis | Phrynichus reniformis | Phrynichus ceylonicus
6 Arkys cordiformis | Gnolus cordiformis
7 Gasteracantha cancriformis
8 Gasteracantha acrosomoïdes | Acrosomoides acrosomoides
9 Gasteracantha geminata
10 Gasteracantha arcuata | Macracantha arcuata
11 Acrosoma hexacanthum | Gasteracantha cancriformis
12 Acrosoma spinosum | Micrathena schreibersi
13 Acrosoma bifurcatum | Micrathena furcata
14 Oxyopes variegatus | Oxyopes ramosus
15 Epeira diadema | Araneus diadematus

Chiroptera - Murcielagos


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1 Plecotus auritus | Brown Long-eared Bat
2 Plecotus auritus | Brown Long-eared Bat
3 Nyctophilus australis | Nyctophilus geoffroyi | Lesser Long-eared Bat
4 Megaderma trifolium | Megaderma spasma | Lesser False Vampire Bat
5 Vampyrus auritus | Chrotopterus auritus | Big-eared Woolly Bat
6 Lonchorhina aurita | Tomes's Sword-nosed Bat
7 Lonchorhina aurita | Tomes's Sword-nosed Bat
8 Natalus stramineus | Mexican Funnel-eared Bat
9 Mormoops blainvillei | Mormoops blainvillii | Antillean Ghost-faced Bat
10 Anthops ornatus | Flower-faced Bat
11 Phyllostomus hastatum | Greater Spear-nosed Bat
12 Furipterus coerulescens | Furipterus horrens | Thumbless Bat
13 Rhinolophus equinus | Rhinolophus ferrumequinum | Greater Horseshoe Bat
14 Centurio flavigularis | Centurio senex | Wrinkle-faced Bat
15 Vampyrus spectrum | Spectral Bat

Batrachia - Ranas


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1 Notodelphys ovifera | Gastrotheca ovifera
2 Hyla meridionalis
3 Hyla tuberculosa | Ecnomiohyla tuberculosa
4 Amphignathodon güntheri | Gastrotheca guentheri
5 Rhacophorus pardalis
6 Hylodes lineatus | Lithodytes lineatus | Leptodactylus lineatus
7 Limnodytes erythraeus | Hylarana erythraea
8 Ceratobatrachus güntheri
9 Breviceps mossambicus
10 Lithobates pipiens | Rana pipiens

Hexacoralla


pasar puntero sobre imagen para identificar especiesmove pointer over image to identify species

1 (center, above): Turbinaria transformis | Dendrophylliidae sp.
2 (center left, below): Turbinaria robusta | Dendrophylliidae sp.
3 (center left, above): Lophoseris frondifera | Pavona frondifera | Madrepora ficoides
4 (top center): Lophoseris divaricata | Pavona divaricata
5 (top right): Hydnophora racemosa | Hydnophora exesa
6 (top left): Tridacophyllia lactuca | Pectinia lactuca
7 (center right, above): Manicina crispata | Mancinia sp.
8 (center right, below): Lithophyllia lacera | Scolymia lacera | Scolymia cubensis
9 (center, below): Astraea magnifica | Goniastrea aspera
10 (bottom center): Astraea expansa | Faviidae sp.
11 (bottom left): Pterogyra laxa
12 (bottom right): Euphyllia striata | Euphyllia glabrescens

Ophiodea

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1 Astrophyton darwinium | Gorgonocephalidae sp.
2 Astrophyton darwinium | Gorgonocephalidae sp. | center without arms
3 Ophiopholis japonica | center without arms
4 Ophiotholia supplicans | lower center without arms
5 Ophiohelus umbella | skeleton of an arm section near the arm's end
6 Ophioglypha minuta | Aspidophiura minuta | center without arms
7 Hemipholis cordifera | Hemipholis elongata | mouth

Stephoidea

pasar puntero sobre imagen para identificar especiesmove pointer over image to identify species

1 (top center): Lithocircus magnificus | living animal
2 (top left): Semantis sigillum | Tholospyris procera | skeleton of juvenile
3 (bottom left, upper): Acanthodesmia corona | Acanthodesmia sp | skeleton
4 (center right, upper): Tristephanium dimensivum | skeleton
5 (center): Trissocyclus sphaeridium | Trissocyclidae sp.
6 (center right, lower): Octotympanum cervicorne | Acanthodesmia viniculata | skeleton
7 (bottom right, upper): Microcubus zonarius | Amphispyris zonarius | skeleton
8 (top right): Tympaniscus tripodiscus | Trissocyclidae sp. | skeleton
9 (center left, upper): Tympaniscus quadrupes | Trissocyclidae | skeleton
10 (bottom center): Tympanidium foliosum | Tympanidium foliosum | living animal
11 (bottom left, lower): Lithotympanum tuberosum | living animal
12 (center left, lower): Circotympanum octogonium | Nassellaria sp. | skeleton
13 (bottom right, lower): Lithocubus astragalus | living animal

Muscinae

Reino: Plantae
División: Bryophyta
Especie: 24000 especies


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1 Thamnium alopecurum | Thamnobryum alopecurum
2 Eurhynchium praelongum | Eurhynchium pumilum
3 Polytrichum commune
4 Sphagnum cymbifolium | Sphagnum palustre
5 Splachnum luteum
6 Mnium undulatum | Hypnum ligulatum
7 Rhodobryum roseum
8 Physcomitrium acuminatum | Physcomitrium eurystomum
9 Physcomitrium ericetorum
10 Physcomitrium sphaericum
11 Sphagnum medium | Sphagnum magellanicum
12 Andreaea thedenii | Andreaea obovata
13 Hypnum castrense | Hypnum crista-castrensis
14 Tetraplodon urceolatus
15 Dissodon hornschuchii | Tayloria hornschuchii
16 Dissodon froelichii | Tayloria froelichiana

Ascomycetes


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1 Erysiphe berberidis | Microsphaera berberidis | fruiting body
2 Erysiphe alni | Microsphaera penicillata | fruiting body
3 Erysiphe salicis | Uncinula adunca | fruiting body
4 Erysiphe aceris | Sawadaea bicornis | Miyabe | fruiting body in lengthwise section
5 Cucurbitaria macrospora | Asteromassaria macrospora | fruiting body in lengthwise section
6 Hypomyces chrysospermus | habitus
7 Hypomyces asterophorus | Pyxidiophora asterophora | Lindau | habitus
8 Melanconis umbonata | Pseudovalsa umbonata | fruiting bodies
9 Pleospora herbarum | fruiting bodies

Orchidae


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1 Odontoglossum naevium
2 Oncidium kramerianum | Psychopsis krameriana
3 Odontoglossum ramosissimum | Cyrtochilum ramosissimum
4 Odontoglossum schroederianum | Oncidium schroederianum
5 Cattleya ballantiniana
6 Cattleya mendellii
7 Cypripedium lemoinieri | Phragmipedium sedenii | longifolium
8 Cattleya rochellensis | Cattleya warscewiczii
9 Cypripedium leeanum | Paphiopedilum insigne
10 Odontoglossum wattianum
11 Cattleya labiata
12 Epidendrum atropurpureum | Psychilis atropurpurea
13 Cypripedium argus | Paphiopedilum argus
14 Paphinia rugosa
15 Zygopetalum xanthinum | Promenaea xanthina
16 Oncidium laxense | Oncidium loxense | Cyrtochilum loxense

Orchidaceae is the largest family of the flowering plants (Angiospermae). Its name is derived from the genus Orchis.

880 genera and nearly 22,000 accepted species, but the exact number is unknown (perhaps as many as 25,000) because of taxonomic disputes. The number of orchid species equals about four times the number of mammal species, or more than twice the number of bird species. It also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. About 800 new orchid species are added each year.

The largest genera are:
Bulbophyllum (2,000 species)
Epidendrum (1,500 species)
Dendrobium (1,400 species)
Pleurothallis (1,000 species)

The family also includes the Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus) and many commonly cultivated plants like some Phalaenopsis or Cattleya.
Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species in the 19th century, horticulturists have more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

Cattleya dowiana


Cattleya aclandiae var. schilleriana


Calanthe veitchii


Barkeria lindleyana var. centeriae


Aërides quinquevulnerum


Vanda insignis


Sophronitis grandiflora


Oncidium macranthum


Epidendrum vitellinum var. majus


Dendrobium parishii


Dendrobium farmeri


Cypripedium sedeni


Cattleya labiata


Cattleya dowiana


Cattleya aclandiae var. schilleriana


Calanthe veitchii


Barkeria lindleyana var. centeriae


Aërides quinquevulnerum


Odontoglossum carinatum


Odontoglossum cirrhosum


Odontoglossum Cordatum


Odontoglossum Grande


Odontoglossum hastilabium


Odontoglossum laeve


Odontoglossum Nebulosum


Odontoglossum Roezlii


Odontoglossum Roseum


Odontoglossum triumphans


Odontoglossum Uro-Skinneri


Odontoglossum vexillarium